The Indians gave the world a lot of vegetable crops: corn, tomatoes and potatoes. Among them is the girasol family. In XVII, this root crop saved Canadian immigrants from starvation. And after hundreds of years it became known that the earth pear is able to prevent cancer, heart attack and stroke. Growing vegetables is possible in the open field and at the cottages near Moscow, and the middle band. The main thing is to observe the proper care of the plant and prepare the soil before planting it.
Description and characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke
Jerusalem artichoke - perennial plant, with a strong root system and a direct stem up to 4 m tall. The leaves are large, 20-25 cm long. The flowers are small, up to 10 cm in diameter, yellow or golden. On the underground shoots are formed tubers (white, red, purple), taste like turnips, with white flesh.
They very nutritious and contain:
- trace elements (silicon, manganese, chromium)
- macronutrients (potassium, sulfur, phosphorus)
- vitamins (B, C, carotene)
- amino acids (methionine, threonine, lysine)
The earth pear is a high-yielding, drought-resistant and frost-resistant plant. Stems of vegetable culture can withstand cooling to -12 degrees. Tubers are able to freeze the month in the ground at -10 degrees, thawed and climb in the spring.
The origin and distribution of the plant
Topinambur is from North America. The name he received on behalf of the Indian tribe Topinambo. They grew and ate root vegetables long before the arrival of the Europeans.
Vegetable culture came to Europe from Canada in the 17th century. Unpretentious plant quickly settled down on the new continent. Jerusalem artichoke is traditionally used in the kitchens of England, Holland and France. In Germany, he was called ground pear and schnapps potatoes (here they make vodka based on it).
In Russia, vegetable culture became known in the middle of the XVII century. Wine based on root vegetables treated heart disease and blood vessels. Then he was considered a rarity, it was eaten only by the rich.
After a hundred years, an earthen pear spread everywhere. Fruit stew, boil and roast, raw should not be consumed. Roasted Jerusalem artichokes resemble sweet roasted potatoes to taste.Topinambur fruits can be stewed, fried, boiled
Jerusalem artichoke contains inulin. Once in the human body, this polysaccharide cleanses the blood of cholesterol and decomposition products.
In addition, Jerusalem artichoke:
- Treats diseases of the digestive tract: gastritis and pancreatitis. Eliminates dysbiosis, relieves constipation and colic.
- Excretes toxins and salts of heavy metals.
- It has a diuretic effect. Good for people with kidney stones.
- Lowers pressure. Recommended for hypertension.
- Lowers sugar in blood thanks to inulin (diabetes care).
- Strengthens the heart and prevents the deposition of salts in the body (useful for osteochondrosis, arthrosis, gout).
The right choice of soil for planting Jerusalem artichoke
Earth pear grows on any soils, except for strongly acidic and marshy. Abundant shoots are provided on:
- loose chernozem
- light loam
- floodplain soil
The root crop is resistant to many diseases and parasites (Colorado potato beetle, nematode and phytophthora) and does not require treatment with pesticides.
Cultivation and care in the open field at the cottage or garden
Tubers need to be planted in the ground in the beginning of Maywhen the air warms up up to 18 degrees. In the autumn the plot is prepared:
- dug up to the depth of the future planting of tubers (15 cm)
- remove trash from the ground
- manure is added to the soil
For planting and breeding large tubers are selected. Sick spots are cut and powdered with coal. The more healthy tubers, the more abundant the crop will be.
The soil before planting is loosened and leveled, dividing into rows 70 cm. Tubers need to be planted at a distance 40-50 cm apart. This is important, because in summer the shoots will reach two meters in height. The foliage of the Jerusalem artichoke is thick, with close planting intertwined. This can seriously impede the care of crops.
Before germination and after soil loosen and hoe. From planting to harvest, the root crop needs in abundant watering. It is important not to pour the plant. Excess moisture is dangerous rotting and the appearance of slugs. And the disadvantage - slow development and small fruits. Once a month topinambur feed up potash and nitrogen fertilizers.
It is important to observe the growth of plants. If they grow sluggish, lose leaves and become covered with bloom, then this is a sign of illness or pests. Affected plants are removed and burned.Topinambur bushes can reach a very large height, then you need a garter
When shoots rise to 30 cm spud. Once again, plants are milling in the middle of summer. When the stalks of the earthen pear reach the height of a meter, they are tied to strong supports. For example, to wire supports for shrubs.
As soon as the stems grow, they are neat cut to a height of 1.5 m, the flowers are also removed. It stimulates root development and tuber formation.
When to collect tubers
Tubers will ripen after 120 days from the moment of emergence of shoots. A month before harvesting, feeding is stopped, and after two weeks the stems are pruned to 30 cm tall. This will help the fruit to form a dense skin and increase their shelf life.
If you leave the tubers in the ground, then they persist until spring. To protect from the cold beds sprinkled with earth mixed with humus and covered with straw. The stems are cut. Temperature drops will not affect the fruit of the earthen pear. They will thaw and freeze again. But the green mass of plants will die if left.
In the spring, the fruits in the beds are determined by cut stalks. They grow quickly and if they do not control their growth, the earth pear is able to push other plants from the beds.
If it is planned to grow other crops on the site, then the soil is first sown with silage plants. Then they are collected on green fodder, and the land is deeply dug up and herbicides are introduced to destroy Jerusalem artichoke.The best time to harvest is October or November.
In the ground
Here the fruits are stored the longest. To do this, lay them in layers in a small pit and fall asleep on top of peat or sand. Storage place choose dry and sublime. A 30 cm deep moat is dug around the embankment to drain water.
In the basement
Collected tubers are stored in a dark and cool place. Suitable basement or cellar with a temperature from +1 to +4 degrees and humidity up to 90%. Root vegetables are stored in wooden boxes. They are covered with sand and covered with plywood.
In the apartment
A glazed loggia or balcony is suitable for storage. If the roots are frozen, then they will not lose their nutritional properties. They are stored in boxes or bags filled with sand for two months.
Root vegetables are thoroughly washed and dried. For storage use bags or sealed containers. Fruits are thawed by placing them in cold water. Fresh Jerusalem artichoke is stored in the vegetable section up to 3 weeksin the freezer - up to 3 months.
Considering that if an earthen pear is an unpretentious plant, then you will not need to care for it - an error To grow a vegetable and get a bountiful harvest, you need a grain of attention and a little work. These are easy and pleasant chores. They are more than worth the useful properties of the earthen pear. After all, health is the main wealth to be protected.